Funeral for “Joe Racism” at Armstrong High School, 1990

Grade Level

High, Middle

Time Period

1951-1999: Late 20th Century


African American History, Civil rights

Resource Type

Primary Source

Download Collections in the Classroom: Funeral for “Joe Racism” at Armstrong High School (pdf)


  • What do you notice about this image?
  • Why would students hold a funeral for racism in 1990?


This mock funeral for racism at Armstrong High School was featured in the Richmond Times-Dispatch on February 28, 1990. One of the students played the minister delivering “Joe Racism’s” eulogy after which the casket was put into a hearse and taken to its final resting place.